|21. Oba Esigie of Benin (ruled c.1504-c.1550 AD)|
Great ruler of the southern Nigeria region who commissioned great art
Great Benin, also known as Edo, was an important state that flourished in southern Nigeria. Oba Esigie ascended the throne in c.1504 and had a long and eventful reign of perhaps 46 years. He introduced a special post in the administration for his mother called the Iyoba, the Queen Mother. A Dutch chronicler would report a century later that the Oba "undertakes nothing of importance without having sought her counsel". The art of the time reflects this reality. Esigie commissioned a highly improved metal art that has since achieved worldwide distinction. Of the best-known pieces are the famous Queen Mother Idia busts. Professor Felix von Luschan, a former official of the Berlin Museum für Völkerkunde, stated that: "These works from Benin are equal to the very finest examples of European casting technique. Benvenuto Cellini could not have cast them better, nor could anyone else before or after him … Technically, these bronzes represent the very highest possible achievement."
Affonso d'Aveiro and other Portuguese agents returned to Benin. They aroused Esigie's interest in the possibility of acquiring firearms from Portugal for future campaigns. There was, however, a catch. Manuel, the Portuguese king wrote Esigie, explaining to him that: "When we see that you have embraced the teachings of Christianity like a good and faithful Christian, there will be nothing within our realms which we shall not be glad to favour you, whether it be arms or cannon and all other weapons of war for use against your enemies; of such things we have a great store, as your ambassador Dom Jorge will inform you."
It was not to be. In 1516 and without Portuguese arms, Esigie scored a crushing defeat on Igala to the north. They had attempted an invasion that posed a threat to the very existence of Benin. Esigie compelled the defeated Igala to pay reparations. The Portuguese king did, however, send missionaries to Benin who successfully converted the Oba's son to the Christian faith. Bini Christians also established a few churches in Benin City at Ogbelaka, Idumwerie, and Akpakpava. The last church became the Holy Cross Cathedral. Christianity, however, remained distinctly a minority religion largely restricted to a few members of the court. It seems that the indigenous religion was just too well organised to be undermined by this foreign threat.
|22. Oba Ewuare the Great of Benin (ruled c.1440-c.1473 AD)|
Greatest ruler of the southern Nigeria region
Great Benin, also known as Edo, was an important state that flourished in southern Nigeria. In the fifteenth century, it was an empire distinguished by the sumptuousness and comfort of its capital, Benin City, and by the refinement of its royal art. Oba (i.e. King) Ewuare the Great, founder of the empire, reigned between c.1440 and c.1473. Noted as a brilliant ruler, he is remembered for strong leadership and military prowess. Marching against 201 towns and villages over the southern Nigeria region, he captured their leaders and compelled the masses to pay tribute. Among the subdued regions were Eka, Ekiti, Ikare, Kukuruku, and the Igbo territories west of the Niger River.
An able politician, he used religious authority and intimidation, as well as constitutional reforms, to strengthen his hand. He appointed a new tier of bureaucrats creating a strongly centralised system to administer his empire. These bureaucrats, the Town Chiefs, were appointed to undermine the control of the hereditary Palace Chiefs. One of the Town Chiefs headed the newly created standing army. Modern historians give different and conflicting explanations of how this worked but Stride and Ifeka explain it thus: "Benin was apparently governed by the Oba, the Uzama and the palace chiefs. The palace chiefs were divided into three associations of title holders: the chamberlains, household officials and the harem-keepers. Palace chiefs both inherited and achieved their titles by paying fees to their association. What Ewuare found was that the palace chiefs were too powerful … To strengthen the Obaship, Ewuare … introduced another association of chiefs, the town chiefs … They generally obtained their title on appointment by the Oba: only one title was hereditary. Ewuare appointed four town chiefs to increase his authority against the palace officials; later their number was much enlarged by Ewuare successors. Town chiefs played an important part in the government and the senior town chief, the Iyashere, became the commander-in-chief of the army. They sat with the palace chiefs and the Uzama on the State Council, which Ewuare was said to have set up."
Creation date : 18/04/2006 @ 01:30
Last update : 27/07/2006 @ 13:11
Category : 50 Greatest Africans
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